FAQ: Test & Treatment Definitions
What is arthroscopic surgery?
Arthroscopic surgery is a surgical procedure that is commonly performed to diagnose and treat problems within the joint. By using high-tech cameras, the orthopedic surgeon inserts a small instrument, called an arthroscope, into the joint.
The arthroscope contains a fiber optic light source and small television camera that allow the surgeon to view the joint on a television monitor and diagnose the problem, determine the extent of injury, and make any necessary repairs.
What is a bone density scan?
A bone density test is used to diagnose osteoporosis, which is a disease that causes weakening of the bones that can ultimately result in fractures. In the past, osteoporosis could only be detected after a person’s bone was broken; however, by using a bone density test, it is possible to know one’s individual risk of breaking bones before a bone breaks.
A bone density test uses X-rays to measure the amount of calcium and other bone minerals that are packed into the segment of bone. Common areas that are tested using a bone density scan include the spine, hip, and forearm.
What is a cortisone injection?
Corticosteroids, more commonly referred to as cortisone, is a steroid that is produced in the body naturally. Synthetically produced cortisone can be injected into soft tissues and joints to help decrease inflammation.
While cortisone is not a pain reliever, pain may diminish as a result of reduced inflammation. In orthopedics, cortisone injections are commonly used as a treatment for chronic conditions such as bursitis, tendonitis (medically referred to as tendinitis), and arthritis to reduce swelling, pain, and joint stiffness.
What is a CT scan?
A computed tomography (CT) scan, also known as a CAT scan, produces images that are similar in detail and in quality to an MRI; however, the CT scan takes a 360-degree picture of internal organs and the spine and vertebrae. CT scans provide cross-sectional views of the body and provide clearer imaging than an MRI.
What is an epidural?
An epidural is a steroid injection used to help decrease the inflammation of spinal nerves to help relieve pain in the neck, back, arms, and legs from conditions such as herniated discs, spinal stenosis, and radiculopathy. Cortisone is injected directly into the spinal canal, and some patients only need one injection to relieve pain; however, it normally requires two or three injections to provide significant pain relief.
What is a fusion?
A fusion is a procedure in which bones are fused together with bone grafts and internal devices (such as metal rods and screws) to heal into a single solid bone.
What is internal fixation?
Internal fixation is a treatment to hold pieces of a broken bone in the correct position with metal plates, pins, or screws while the bone is healing.
What is joint replacement surgery?
Joint replacement surgery is a surgical procedure that is performed to replace an arthritic or damaged joint with a new, artificial joint called a prosthesis. Joint replacements can be performed on every joint in the body, but most commonly performed in the knee, hip, shoulder, and elbow.
Joints contain cartilage—a soft, rubbery gel-like coating on the ends of bones where they articulate—that protects joints and facilitates movement and over time, or if the joint has been injured, the cartilage wears away and the bones of the joint start rubbing together. As the bones rub together, bone spurs may form, and the joint becomes stiff and painful. Most people have joint replacement surgery when they can no longer control the pain with medication and other treatments and the pain is significantly interfering with their lives.
What is an X-ray?
An X-ray is a procedure performed that uses a safe form of radiation to provide a two-dimensional picture of your body to use as a screening tool to evaluate for causes of many common disorders, such as bone breaks, joint and spine injuries or conditions, and arthritis or osteoporosis.
What is an MRI scan?
Magnetic Resonance Imaging, commonly referred to as MRI, is an advanced technology that uses magnetic fields and radio waves (like microwaves and the AM and FM bands on your radio) to visualize the inner workings of the body.
The pictures produced by MRI scans help the radiologist clearly and accurately detect and define the differences between healthy and diseased tissues, especially in the soft tissues. It can reveal many health problems at their earliest, most treatable stages.
What are NSAIDs?
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are non-prescription, over-the-counter pain relievers such as aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen sodium. They are popular treatments for muscular aches and pains, as well as arthritis, and help in reducing swelling, pain, and joint stiffness.
What is osteotomy?
Osteotomy is a procedure to correct bone deformity by cutting and repositioning the bone.
What is outpatient surgery?
An outpatient surgery is a surgery that does not require the patient to stay in the hospital overnight; it is commonly known as an ambulatory surgery. Outpatient surgery has grown in popularity due to the improvement in technology.
What is soft tissue repair?
Soft tissue repair is a treatment to mend or fix soft tissues, such as tendons or ligaments.